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Dr Gary Lawrence, Dublin City University

WPI are my preferred supplier for tissue and cell recording instrumentation. In my experience, WPI representatives have an excellent level of technical expertise and they have always responded in a timely manner with the most helpful, patient and instructive advice to aid the development of the o...
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BiOTESTER: A fully equipped biaxial test system built specifically for biomaterials

  • Overview
  • Specifications
  • Accessories
  • Citations
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BIOTESTER Biorakes with tissue mounted on a BioTester. The sample size is much smaller than a US penny One view from the software with actual live video from the mounted sample. Biorakes Pulley System Clamps

There are 6 images available to view - click to enlarge and scroll through the product gallery.

Biotester Datasheet
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Uniaxial U-Stretch
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Why measure mechanical properties?
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Stress-strain in human sclera
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The BioTester provides researchers with an easy-to-use, affordable test instrument to characterize soft tissues and biomaterials. This biaxial test system captures and graphically displays live time, force, and synchronized video images for results analysis and verification. Data is easily exported to standard spreadsheet programs. 

  • High performance actuators (2 per axis) capable of μm positional resolution for accurate test motion.
  • Inline overload-protected load cell on each axis
  • High resolution CCD camera to collect time synchronized images for post test analysis
  • Temperature controlled media bath
  • Patented attachment system facilitates rapid and accurate specimen attachment
  • Optional use of hook-and-suture or grip based attachment systems
  • User-controlled test routines for multi-modal cyclic, simple, and relaxation testing over a wide range of strain rates
  • Data output as a comma separated value text files for easy import into a variety of spread sheet and data analysis programs
  • Simple USB connection to a Windows-based host computer
  • Specimen Size: 3mm to 15mm
  • Load Cell Capacities (N): 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 5, 10, 23
  • Load Cell Accuracies: 0.2% of capacity Max Displacement
  • Rate: 10mm/s Image Rate: 15Hz
  • Image Resolution: 1280 X 960 pixels
  • Max. Temperature: 40°C

Sample Mounting Systems

The BioRake sample mounting system is CellScale’s patented method for attaching soft tissues and biomaterials.

 Each tine is electrochemically sharpened to easily pierce both the toughest and most delicate tissue samples. Each set is permanently attached to a common base to allow simultaneous puncture of all 20 attachment points. The BioRakes are magnetically mounted for easy removal for cleaning or replacement and for simple transition between BioRake, Balanced Pulley, and Clamp mounting systems.

To perform testing, samples are positioned and raised into place using the manual lift mechanism and pressure is applied to insert the hooks in the tissue. The sample is thus mounted and ready for analysis within a few seconds. The mounting is consistent, accurate and easy.

BioRakes are available with tine spacing ranging from 0.7mm to 2.2mm to accommodate specimens from 3 to 15mm in size.

The balanced pulley sample mounting system is CellScale’s attachment method for ensuring zero shear stress during biaxial testing.


Two double-ended custom suture hooks are used to create 4 attachment points on each side of the specimen. A two-stage stainless steel pulley mechanism ensures that each of the sutures is held at the same tension during the test.

The pulley mechanisms are magnetically mounted for easy removal for cleaning and for simple transition between BioRake, Balanced Pulley, and Clamp mounting systems.

The clamp sample mounting system is CellScale’s attachment method for testing to failure.


Using a cruciform specimen allows the attachment sites, which are inherently weaker than the base material, to be moved away from the gauge area of the specimen. The clamps allow the specimen to be loaded easily and held securely.

The stainless steel clamping mechanisms are mounted over the same brackets used for the other attachment systems to allow for fast and easy transition between BioRake, Balanced Pulley, and Clamp mounting systems.

Custom clamp designs can also be made to tailor the clamp force and clamping surface to your tissue. 

Video Overviews 



Force Capacity  500, 100, 2500, 5000mN, 10N, 23N
Force Accuracy  0.2% of force capacity
Max. Elongation Rate 10mm/s
Max. Strain Rate (5mm specimen) 200%/s
Spatial Resolution (Actuator)  >0.1μm 
Spatial Accuracy (Acuator) 10μm 
Spatial Resolution (Image Analysis)  1/8 pixel 
Max. Force Data Rate 100Hz
Image Rate 1280 x 960 -15Hz



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Pillalamarri, Narasimha & Patnaik, Sourav & Piskin, Senol & Gueldner, Pete & Finol, Ender. (2021). Ex Vivo Regional Mechanical Characterization of Porcine Pulmonary Arteries. Experimental Mechanics. 61. 1-19. 10.1007/s11340-020-00678-2.

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Surman, Tim & O'Rourke, Dermot & Reynolds, Karen & Edwards, J. & Worthington, M. (2021). M06 The Unique Tissue Biomechanics of the Thoracic Aorta. What are the Greatest Areas of Weakness and Where Should we Focus Repair?. Heart, Lung and Circulation. 30. S4. 10.1016/j.hlc.2021.03.015.

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Walsh, Darragh & Ross, Aisling & Newport, David & Zhou, Zhou & Kearns, Jamie & Fearon, Conor & Lorigan, Jennifer & Mulvihill, John. (2021). Mechanical Characterisation of the Human Dura Mater, Falx Cerebri and Superior Sagittal Sinus. Acta Biomaterialia. 134. 10.1016/j.actbio.2021.07.043.

Cunnane, Eoghan & Davis, NIALL & Cunnane, Connor & Lorentz, Katherine & Ryan, Alan & Hess, Jochen & Weinbaum, Justin & Walsh, Michael & O’Brien, Fergal & Vorp, David. (2021). Mechanical, compositional and morphological characterisation of the human male urethra for the development of a biomimetic tissue engineered urethral scaffold. Biomaterials. 269. 120651. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2021.120651.

Maleckis, Kaspars & Kamenskiy, Alexey & Lichter, Eliezer & Oberley-Deegan, Rebecca & Dzenis, Yuris & Mactaggart, Jason. (2021). Mechanically Tuned Vascular Graft Demonstrates Rapid Endothelialization and Integration Into the Porcine Iliac Artery Wall. Acta Biomaterialia. 125. 10.1016/j.actbio.2021.01.047.

Morningstar, Jordan & Gensemer, Cortney & Moore, Reece & Fulmer, Diana & Beck, Tyler & Wang, Christina & Moore, Kelsey & Guo, Lilong & Sieg, Franz & Nagata, Yasufumi & Bertrand, Philippe & Spampinato, Ricardo & Glover, Janiece & Poelzing, Stephen & Gourdie, Robert & Watts, Kelsey & Richardson, William & Levine, Robert & Borger, Michael & Norris, Russell. (2021). Mitral Valve Prolapse Induces Regionalized Myocardial Fibrosis. Journal of the American Heart Association. 10. 10.1161/JAHA.121.022332.

Ahmad, Dilshad & Ajaj, Rafic. (2021). Multiaxial Mechanical Characterization of Latex Skin for Morphing Wing Application. Polymer Testing. 10.1016/j.polymertesting.2021.107408.

Zheng, Cheng & Ding, Kailei & Huang, Xueyu & Li, Meiling & Wu, Bingang & Lei, Yang & Wang, Yunbing. (2021). Nonglutaraldehyde crosslinked bioprosthetic heart valves based on 2-isocyanatoethyl methacrylate crosslinked porcine pericardium with improved properties of stability, cytocompatibility and anti-calcification. Composites Part B: Engineering. 230. 109504. 10.1016/j.compositesb.2021.109504.

Nemavhola, Fulufhelo & Ngwangwa, Harry & Davies, Neil & Franz, Thoams. (2021). Passive Biaxial Tensile Dataset of Three Main Rat Heart Myocardia: Left Ventricle, Mid-Wall and Right Ventricle. 10.20944/preprints202108.0153.v1.

Liu, Hailong & Jain, Shubham & Ahlinder, Astrid & Fuoco, Tiziana & Gasser, Thomas & Finne-Wistrand, Anna. (2021). Pliable, Scalable, and Degradable Scaffolds with Varying Spatial Stiffness and Tunable Compressive Modulus Produced by Adopting a Modular Design Strategy at the Macrolevel. ACS Polymers Au. XXXX. 10.1021/acspolymersau.1c00013.

Ross, Colton & Hsu, Ming-Chen & Baumwart, Ryan & Mir, Arshid & Burkhart, Harold & Holzapfel, Gerhard & Wu, Yi & Lee, Chung-Hao. (2021). Quantification of load-dependent changes in the collagen fiber architecture for the strut chordae tendineae-leaflet insertion of porcine atrioventricular heart valves. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 20. 10.1007/s10237-020-01379-4.

Ndlovu, Zwelihle & Desia, Dawood & Nemavhola, Fulufhelo & Ngwangwa, Harry. (2021). Sheep Sclera Soft Tissue Subjected to Mechanical Equi-Biaxial Testing. 10.20944/preprints202108.0388.v1.

Quince, Zachery & Alonso-Caneiro, David & Read, Scott & Collins, Michael. (2021). Static compression optical coherence elastography to measure soft contact lens mechanical properties. Biomedical Optics Express. 12. 10.1364/BOE.419344.

Nemavhola, Fulufhelo. (2021). Study of biaxial mechanical properties of the passive pig heart: material characterisation and categorisation of regional differences. International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering. 16. 10.1186/s40712-021-00128-4.

Hu, Yingbing & Huang, Yu & Chen, Yun & Ye, Cheng & Wei, Wei & Feng, Yun & Mi, Shengli. (2021). Study on patterned photodynamic cross-linking for keratoconus. Experimental Eye Research. 204. 108450. 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108450.

Cai, Li & Zhang, Ruihang & Li, Yiqiang & Guangyu, Zhu & Ma, Xingshuang & Wang, Yongheng & Luo, Xiaoyu & Gao, Hao. (2021). The Comparison of Different Constitutive Laws and Fiber Architectures for the Aortic Valve on Fluid–Structure Interaction Simulation. Frontiers in Physiology. 12. 682893. 10.3389/fphys.2021.682893.

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Nemavhola, Fulufhelo & Ngwangwa, Harry & Pandelani, Thanyani & Davies, Neil & Franz, Thomas. (2021). Understanding regional mechanics of rat myocardia by fitting hyperelatsic models. 10.21203/

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Lan, Xiaorong & Zhao, Qianting & Zhang, Jiayi & Lei, Yang & Wang, Yunbing. (2020). A combination of hydrogen bonding and chemical covalent crosslinking to fabricate a novel swim-bladder-derived dry heart valve material yields advantageous mechanical and biological properties. Biomedical Materials. 16. 10.1088/1748-605X/abb616.

A. Cudlip (2020). A combined in vivo and in vitro approach to assess supraspinatus activation and tissue responses to arm elevation demands

Sang, Cyril & Kallmes, D. & Kadirvel, R. & Durka, Micheal & Ding, Y-H & Dai, D. & Watkins, S. & Robertson, Anne (2020). Adaptive Remodeling in the Elastase-Induced Rabbit Aneurysms. Experimental Mechanics. 61. 10.1007/s11340-020-00671-9.

Sharifi Kia, Danial & Benza, Evan & Bachman, Timothy & Tushak, Claire & Kim, Kang & Simon, Marc. (2020). Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibition Attenuates Right Ventricular Remodeling in Pulmonary Hypertension. Journal of the American Heart Association. 9. 10.1161/JAHA.119.015708.

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Whittal, Mitchel & Molladavoodi, Sara & Zwambag, Derek & Millecamps, Magali & Stone, Laura & Gregory, Diane. (2020). Mechanical Consequence of Induced Intervertebral Disc Degeneration in the SPARC-Null Mouse. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. 143. 10.1115/1.4047995.

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Yang, Fan & Xu, Liangpeng & Kuang, Dajun & Ge, Yao & Guo, Gaoyang & Wang, Yunbing. (2020). Polyzwitterion-crosslinked hybrid tissue with antithrombogenicity, endothelialization, anticalcification properties. Chemical Engineering Journal. 410. 128244. 10.1016/j.cej.2020.128244.

Yang, Li & Huang, Xueyu & Deng, Lu & Ma, Xiaoxiao & Jiang, Honglin & Ning, Qinggong & Liang, Zhen & Lei, Yang & Wang, Yunbing. (2020). Pre-mounted dry TAVI valve with improved endothelialization potential using REDV-loaded PEGMA hydrogel hybrid pericardium. Journal of Materials Chemistry B. 8. 10.1039/C9TB00879A.

Aldosary, Ghada & Tse, Tabitha & Arnaout, Angel & Caudrelier, Jean-Michel & Czyrnyj, Catriona & Romain, Ron & Mclean, Linda & Foottit, Claire & Vandervoort, Eric & Belec, Jason. (2020). Radiological, dosimetric and mechanical properties of a deformable breast phantom for radiation therapy and surgical applications. Biomedical Physics & Engineering Express. 6. 10.1088/2057-1976/ab834a.

Barbour, Kaitlyn & Huang, Hsiao-Ying. (2020). Strain effects on collagen proteolysis in heart valve tissues. Mechanics of Time-Dependent Materials. 24. 10.1007/s11043-019-09410-7.

Yang, Li & Xie, Shuang & Ding, Kailei & Lei, Yang & Wang, Yunbing. (2020). The study of dry biological valve crosslinked with a combination of carbodiimide and polyphenol. Regenerative Biomaterials. 8. 10.1093/rb/rbaa049.

Meador, William & Mathur, Mrudang & Sugerman, Gabriella & Malinowski, Marcin & Jazwiec, Tomasz & Wang, Xinmei & Lacerda, Carla & Timek, Tomasz & Rausch, Manuel. (2020). The tricuspid valve also maladapts as shown in sheep with biventricular heart failure. eLife. 9. 10.7554/eLife.63855.

Meador, William & Mathur, Mrudang & Sugerman, Gabriella & Malinowski, Marcin & Jazwiec, Tomasz & Wang, Xinmei & Lacerda, Carla & Timek, Tomasz & Rausch, Manuel. (2020). The tricuspid valve also maladapts: A multiscale study in sheep with biventricular heart failure. 10.1101/2020.09.03.278515.

Jin, Linhe & He, Haiyang & Yang, Fan & Xu, Liangpeng & Guo, Gaoyang & Wang, Yunbing. (2020). Tough pNAGA hydrogel hybridized porcine pericardium for the pre-mounted TAVI valve with improved anti-tearing properties and hemocompatibility. Biomedical Materials. 15. 10.1088/1748-605X/aba239.

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Mathers, Bryan & Agur, Anne & Oliver, Michele & Gordon, Karen. (2016). Biaxial quantification of deep layer transverse carpal ligament elastic properties by sex and region. Clinical Biomechanics. 40. 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2016.10.011.

Smoljkic, Marija & Fehervary, Heleen & Bergh, Philip & Jorge-Peñas, Alvaro & Kluyskens, Louis & Dymarkowski, Steven & Verbrugghe, Peter & Meuris, Bart & Vander Sloten, Jos & Famaey, Nele. (2016). Biomechanical Characterization of Ascending Aortic Aneurysms. Biomechanics and modeling in mechanobiology. 16. 10.1007/s10237-016-0848-4.

Javani, Shahnaz & Gordon, Matthew & Azadani, Ali. (2016). Biomechanical Properties and Microstructure of Heart Chambers: A Paired Comparison Study in an Ovine Model. Annals of Biomedical Engineering. 44. 10.1007/s10439-016-1658-7.

Abbasi, Mostafa & Barakat, Mohammed & Vahidkhah, Koohyar & Azadani, Ali. (2016). Characterization of three–dimensional anisotropic heart valve tissue mechanical properties using inverse finite element analysis. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials. 62. 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2016.04.031.

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Huang, Guo & Tse, Wai Hei & Zhang, Jin. (2016). Deposition of Hydrophilic Nanocomposite-based Coating on Silicone Hydrogel through a Laser Process to Minimize UV Exposure and Bacterial Contamination. RSC Adv.. 6. 10.1039/C6RA12991A.

Almen, Geert & Talacua, Hanna & Ippel, Bastiaan & Mollet, Björne & Ramaekers, Mellany & Simonet, Marc & Smits, Anthal & Bouten, Carlijn & Kluin, Jolanda & Dankers, Patricia. (2016). Development of Non-Cell Adhesive Vascular Grafts Using Supramolecular Building Blocks. Macromolecular bioscience. 16. 10.1002/mabi.201500278.

Ghazanfari, Samaneh & Mol, A. & Bouten, Carlijn & Baaijens, Frank. (2016). Modulation of collagen fiber orientation by strain-controlled enzymatic degradation. Acta Biomaterialia. 35. 10.1016/j.actbio.2016.02.033.

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Labrosse, Michel & Jafar, Reza & Ngu, Janet & Boodhwani, Munir. (2016). Planar biaxial testing of heart valve cusp replacement biomaterials: Experiments, theory and material constants. Acta biomaterialia. 45. 10.1016/j.actbio.2016.08.036.

Fehervary, Heleen & Smoljkic, Marija & Vander Sloten, Jos & Famaey, Nele. (2016). Planar biaxial testing of soft biological tissue using rakes: A critical analysis of protocol and fitting process. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials. 61. 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2016.01.011.

Gonzalez, Grant & MacQueen, Luke & Lind, Johan & Fitzgibbons, Stacey & Chantre, Christophe & Huggler, Isabelle & Golecki, Holly & Goss, Josue & Parker, Kevin. (2016). Production of Synthetic, Para-Aramid and Biopolymer Nanofibers by Immersion Rotary Jet-Spinning. Macromolecular Materials and Engineering. 302. 10.1002/mame.201600365.

Park, Dae Woo & Sebastiani, Andrea & Yap, Choon Hwai & Simon, Marc & Kim, Kang. (2016). Quantification of Coupled Stiffness and Fiber Orientation Remodeling in Hypertensive Rat Right-Ventricular Myocardium Using 3D Ultrasound Speckle Tracking with Biaxial Testing. PLOS ONE. 11. 10.1371/journal.pone.0165320.

Gruevski, Kristina & Gooyers, Chad & Karakolis, Thomas & Callaghan, Jack. (2016). The Effect of Local Hydration Environment on the Mechanical Properties and Unloaded Temporal Changes of Isolated Porcine Annular Samples. Journal of biomechanical engineering. 138. 10.1115/1.4034335.

Monaco, Lauren & DeWitte-Orr, Stephanie & Gregory, Diane. (2015). A Comparison Between Porcine, Ovine, and Bovine Intervertebral Disc Anatomy and Single Lamella Annulus Fibrosus Tensile Properties. Journal of morphology. 277. 10.1002/jmor.20492.

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Kanellopoulos, Anastasios & Kontos, Mark & Chen, Shi-Hao & Asimellis, George. (2015). Corneal Collagen Cross-linking Combined With Simulation of Femtosecond Laser-Assisted Refractive Lens Extraction: An Ex Vivo Biomechanical Effect Evaluation. Cornea. 10.1097/ICO.0000000000000376.

Kanellopoulos, Anastasios & Asimellis, George & Salvador-Culla, Borja & Chodosh, James & Ciolino, Joseph. (2015). High-irradiance CXL combined with myopic LASIK: Flap and residual stroma biomechanical properties studied ex-vivo. The British journal of ophthalmology. 99. 870-874. 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2014-306411.

Sanders, Bart & Loerakker, Sandra & Fioretta, Emanuela & Bax, Dave & Driessen-Mol, Anita & Hoerstrup, Simon & Baaijens, Frank. (2015). Improved Geometry of Decellularized Tissue Engineered Heart Valves to Prevent Leaflet Retraction. Annals of biomedical engineering. 44. 10.1007/s10439-015-1386-4.

Boekhoven, Renate & Peters, Mathijs & Rutten, Marcel & Sambeek, Marc & van de Vosse, Frans & Lopata, Richard. (2015). Inflation and Bi-Axial Tensile Testing of Healthy Porcine Carotid Arteries. Ultrasound in medicine & biology. 42. 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2015.09.019.

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Yap, Choon Hwai & Park, Dae Woo & Dutta, Debaditya & Simon, Marc & Kim, Kang. (2015). Methods for Using 3-D Ultrasound Speckle Tracking in Biaxial Mechanical Testing of Biological Tissue Samples. Ultrasound in medicine & biology. 41. 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2014.10.021.

Yin, Pei & Huang, Guo & Tse, Wai Hei & Bao, Yi & Denstedt, John & Zhang, Jin. (2015). Nanocomposited Silicone Hydrogels with a Laser-assisted Surface Modification for Inhibiting the Growth of Bacterial Biofilm. J. Mater. Chem. B. 3. 10.1039/C4TB01871K.

Brugmans, Marieke & Soekhradj-Soechit, Sarita & van Geemen, Daphne & Cox, Martijn & Bouten, Carlijn & Baaijens, Frank & Driessen-Mol, Anita. (2015). Superior Tissue Evolution in Slow-Degrading Scaffolds for Valvular Tissue Engineering. Tissue engineering. Part A. 22. 10.1089/ten.TEA.2015.0203.

Sun, Michelle T. & Pham, Diana & O'Connor, Andrea & Wood, John & Casson, Robert & Selva, Dinesh & Costi, John. (2015). The Biomechanics of Eyelid Tarsus Tissue. Journal of Biomechanics. 48. 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2015.05.037.

Davis, Taylor & Herrera, Jose. (2015). The Role of Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Debundling on Their Effective Reinforcement of Chitosan-Polyvinylpyrrolidone Hydrogels. Journal of Nanoengineering and Nanomanufacturing. 5. 247-254. 10.1166/jnan.2015.1242.

Argento, G & de Jonge, Nicky & Söntjens, Serge & Oomens, C & Bouten, Carlijn & Baaijens, Frank. (2014). Modeling the impact of scaffold architecture and mechanical loading on collagen turnover in engineered cardiovascular tissues. Biomechanics and modeling in mechanobiology. 14. 10.1007/s10237-014-0625-1.

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Kahlon, A. & Hurtig, Mark & Gordon, Karen. (2014). Regional and depth variability of porcine meniscal mechanical properties through biaxial testing. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials. 41. 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2014.10.008.

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Ballotta, Virginia & Driessen-Mol, Anita & Bouten, Carlijn & Baaijens, Frank. (2014). Strain-dependent modulation of macrophage polarization within scaffolds. Biomaterials. 35. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2014.03.002.

Hill, Michael & Simon, Marc & Valdez-Jasso, Daniela & Zhang, Will & Champion, Hunter & Sacks, Michael. (2014). Structural and Mechanical Adaptations of Right Ventricle Free Wall Myocardium to Pressure Overload. Annals of biomedical engineering. 42. 10.1007/s10439-014-1096-3.

O'Leary, Siobhan & Healy, Donagh & Kavanagh, Eamon & Walsh, Michael & Mcgloughlin, Tim & Doyle, Barry. (2014). The Biaxial Biomechanical Behavior of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Tissue. Annals of biomedical engineering. 42. 10.1007/s10439-014-1106-5.

O'Leary, Siobhan & Kavanagh, Eamon & Grace, Pierce & Mcgloughlin, Tim & Doyle, Barry. (2014). The Biaxial Mechanical Behaviour of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Intraluminal Thrombus: Classification of Morphology and the Determination of Layer and Region Specific Properties. Journal of Biomechanics. 47. 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2014.01.041.

O'Leary, Siobhan & Doyle, Barry & Mcgloughlin, Tim. (2014). The impact of long term freezing on the mechanical properties of porcine aortic tissue. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials. 37. 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2014.04.015.

Lopata, Richard & Peters, Mathijs & Nijs, Jan & Oomens, Cees & Rutten, Marcel & van de Vosse, Frans. (2014). Vascular Elastography: A Validation Study. Ultrasound in medicine & biology. 40. 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2014.02.029.

Huang, Hsiao-Ying & Huang, Siyao & Gettys, Taylor & Prim, Peter & Harrysson, Ola. (2013). A Biomechanical Study of Directional Mechanical Properties of Porcine Skin Tissues. Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology. 14. 10.1115/IMECE2013-63829.

Zhang, Jin & Bi, Robert & Hodge, William & Yin, Pei & Tse, Wai Hei. (2013). A nanocomposite contact lens for the delivery of hydrophilic protein drugs. J. Mater. Chem. B. 1. 10.1039/C3TB20391C.

Kamaev, P., Eddington, W., Rood-Ojalvo, S., Friedman, M. and Muller, D. (2013). Accelerated corneal cross-linking with pulsed light.

Muller, D., Kamaev, P., Friedman, M., Sherr, E. and Eddington, W. (2013). Accelerated UVA-RF corneal cross-linking through pulsed UVA illumination and oxygen rich environments.

Eddington, W., Friedman, M., Sherr, E. and Muller, D. (2013). Biaxial biomechanical study of UVA-RF corneal cross-linking.

Grimes, Kelly & Voorhees, Andrew & Chiao, Ying & Han, Hai-Chao & Lindsey, Merry & Buffenstein, Rochelle. (2013). Cardiac Function of the Naked Mole-rat: Ecophysiological Responses to Working Underground. American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology. 306. 10.1152/ajpheart.00831.2013.

O'Leary, Siobhan & Doyle, Barry & Mcgloughlin, Tim. (2013). Comparison of methods used to measure the thickness of soft tissues and their influence on the evaluation of tensile stress. Journal of biomechanics. 46. 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2013.05.003.

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Cabrera, Maria & Oomens, Cees & Bouten, Carlijn & Bogers, Ad & Hoerstrup, S & Baaijens, Frank. (2013). Mechanical analysis of ovine and pediatric pulmonary artery for heart valve stent design. Journal of biomechanics. 46. 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2013.04.020.

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Sondergaard, Anders & Ivarsen, Anders & Hjortdal, Jesper. (2013). Reduction of Stromal Swelling Pressure after UVA-Riboflavin Cross-Linking. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 54. 10.1167/iovs.12-10346.

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